Non communicable diseases kill 71 million people every year which accounts to 71% of annual
global deaths. Among that diabetes being one of the major NCD contributes to 1.5 million
deaths. It is estimated that approximately 537 million adults are living with diabetes which will
hit a peak of 643 million by 2030.

India is deemed as world’s diabetes capital. According to information by Health Ministry Govt.
of India, the diabetic population of the country is going to hit the alarming figure of 69.9 million
by 2025 and 80 million by 2030. Urban India has more incidences of diabetes than rural India.
Also, the prevalence is more in age group of 70-79 years and also males are more prone to
diabetes. Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb
amputation and also there was 5% increase in premature mortality (aged less than 70 years)
due to diabetes.

Blood sugar or glucose is an essentialsource of energy in our body and it supplies energy for the
functioning of brain, muscles and body tissues.
When we eat, our body breaks downthe carbohydrates in food to glucose. This triggers the
pancreas to release a hormone called insulin, that allows the glucose toenter the cells from the
blood so that it can be utised as energy.
As the cells start absorbing blood sugar, levels in bloodstream begin to fall which causes the
pancreas to release another hormone called glucagon which signals liver to release the stored
glucose. This interplay between glucagon and insulin ensures energy supply to all the body cells.
If the body fails to produce sufficient quantity of insulin or is unable to effectively manage the
insulin produced in the body;the blood sugar level increase and this condition is known as
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus commonly known as diabetes is a metabolic disorder that causes high blood
sugar. The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into our cells to be stored or used for
Untreated high blood sugar on the long run can damage your nerves, eyes, kidneys and other

Types Of Diabetes
• TYPE 1 DIABETES is an autoimmune disease where the immune system
attacks and destroy cells in the pancreas where insulin is made.
• TYPE 2 DIABETES happens when body becomes resistant to insulin and sugar
starts building up in the blood
• PREDIABETES occurs when blood sugar is higher than normal but lesser to be
detected as type 2 diabetes.
• GESTATIONAL DIABETES happens during pregnancy due to the insulinblocking hormone released by placenta.
Causes Of Diabetes
1. The exact reason for type 1 diabetes is not known.
2. Type 2 Diabetes:
• Genetics and family history
• Age: chances of developing type 2 diabetes increases with increasing age.
• Obesity: excess body fat can cause insulin resistance
• Diet: a diet high in calories, fat and cholesterol
• Lack of exercise
• Hormonal conditions like Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly and hyperthyroidism
can contribute for development of type 2 diabetes
General Symptoms Of Diabetes
1. Increased hunger
2. Increased thirst
3. Unintentional weight loss
4. Frequent and increased urination
5. Blurry vision
6. Extreme fatigue
7. Sores that don’t heal
Symptoms In Men:
• Decreased sex drive
• Erectile dysfunction
• Poor muscle strength
Symptoms In Women
• Frequent urinary tract infections
• Yeast infections
• Dry, itchy skin
Diabetes Risk Factors:
• Obesity
• Physical inactivity
• Family history
• Women who had gestational diabetes
• Pcos
• High blood pressure
• Abnormal cholesterol and triglycerides level
Diabetes Complications
Poorly maintained blood sugar over time can lead to development of serious
health issues which can turn out to be life threatening such as:
1. Cardiovascular diseases leading to heart attack or stroke
2. Nerve damage or neuropathy
3. Kidney damage or nephropathy
4. Eye damage due to damage to blood vessels of retina or retinopathy
5. Skin problems including bacterial or viral infections
6. Hearing problems
7. Alzheimer’s disease
8. Depression
Also, high blood sugar during pregnancy can cause:
• High blood pressure
• Preeclampsia
• Miscarriage or still birth
• Birth defects
Investigations For Diagnosis For Diabetes
1. HbA1C:
➢ measures the average blood sugar level for the past 2 or
3 months.
➢ Range: > 6.5% indicates diabetes
2. Fasting Blood Sugar or FBS:
➢ Measures blood sugar after an overnight fast.
➢ Range:126mg/dl or higher indicates diabetes
3. Post Prandial Blood Sugar or PPBS:
➢ Checking glucose after 2 hours after having food
containing glucose.
➢ Range: 200mg/dl or higher indicates diabetes
4. Random Blood Sugar or RBS:
➢ Testing for blood glucose level any time irrespective
of the fasting status
➢ Range: 200mg/dl or above indicates diabetes
Treatment And Management
• Early diagnosis always plays a key role in management of
• Treatment of diabetes includes diet and physical activities along
with medications or insulin to lower the blood sugar level.
• TYPE 1 DIABETES: insulin is used for controlling the blood sugar
• TYPE 2 DIABETES: requires oral medication. Metformin is the drug
of choice. Insulin is also required in some cases.
• Regular screening for blood glucose is necessary
• Blood pressure control and blood lipid control
• Tobacco use cessation is needed to treat complications
• Foot care, seeking help for ulcer management.
• Regular screening for diabetes related complications such as
retinopathy, kidney disease, etc is recommended.
Simple life style measures help in preventing or delaying the onset of
type 2 diabetes:
• Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight
• Follow a healthy diet
• Stay physically active:30 minutes of exercise every day
• Avoid tobacco use
Diabetes in Ayurveda
Diabetes in ayurveda is called by the name ‘PRAMEHA’ which refers to a group of
disorders associated with urinary system often coined to the term obstinate
urinary disorder.
Ayurveda describes 20 types of prameha in which 10 are of kapha predominant
ones, 6 are pitta predominant and 4 are vata further explains
about another variety called as madhumeha which comes as a complication if
these 20 varieties of prameha are left untreated.
Madhumeha can be corelated to modern-day diabetes mellitus.
Causes Of Prameha
a) Eating without any check or control
b) Addiction to the pleasure of sedentary habits and sleep
c) Excess intake of curds
d) Excess consumption of meat of domesticated and aquatic animals and animals
from marshy land
e) Excess intake of milk and its products
f) Intake of freshly harvested grains ,freshly prepared alcoholic drinks
g) All kapha aggravating factors
Signs And Symptoms Of Prameha
The 3 signs of prameha according to ayurveda are:
Excessive urination
Urinary sweetness
The sensation of sweetness in the body
Ayurveda further includes the following under the signs and symptoms of prameha:
Excess thirst
Head ache
Burning sensation
General debility
Muscle wasting
Excessive sleep
Ayurveda lists Prameha or Madhumeha under Asta Mahagada (8 most dangerous diseases) due
to the complications it can cause and make the life of the person miserable.
Prameha tends to affect all the Dhatus and Upadhatus (The body tissues) which can be
identified as:
1. Rasa Dhatu (Blood Plasma & Lymphatics) :Hyperglycemia
2. Rakta Dhatu (Blood) : The reduced quality of blood along with increased viscocity)
3. Mamsa Dhatu (muscles) : Muscle wasting &necrosis
4. Medho Dhatu (fat) : Increased body fat
5. Asthi Dhatu (bones) : reduced bone density
6. Majja Dhatu (nervous tissue) : Degeneration of brain tissue
7. Shukra Dhatu (Reproductive System) : Loss of libido, transmission to next generation
8. Sira (arteries) : atherosclerosis
9. Tvak (skin) : carbuncles, ulcers
10. Snayu (nerves) : Neuropathies especially topical neuropathies.
Ayurvedic Management of Prameha:
Correcting Agni (digestive fire) and elimination of Kleda (Sticky elements in the body ) is the
main aim in doing Ayurvedic treatments for Prameha.
The line of Treatmenet includes:
1. NIDANA PARIVARJANA or Avoidance of causative factors : adapting a healthy life style
prevents prameha or controls prameha
2. SAMSHODANA KARMA or PANCHAKARMA :also knows as biocleansing or body
detoxification aims at cleansing the body for toxins and making the body fit for further
rehabilitation. Panchakarma procedures like vamana , virechana and vasti are
performed. But they mostly depends on the person’s body constitution and severity of
the disease.
3. SAMANA CHIKITSA or Palliative Therapy : Mainly includes various external therapies to
strengthen the body , Drug therapies which can act as a supporting treatment for the
conventional diabetic treatment .
• Amalaki or Amla / Indian Gooseberry :Phyllanthus emblica
• Haridra or Turmeric : Curcuma longa
• Jambu or Jamun /Java Plum : Syzgium cumini
• Meshasringi or Gudmar/ Gymnema : Gymnema sylvestre
• Methi / fenugreek : Trigonella foenum-graecum
• Vijayasara or Bijak / Indian kino : Ptenocarpus marsupium
• Karela / bittergourd : Memorandia charantia
• Saptachakra / lolly berry : Salacia chinensis
• Bimbi / ivy gourd : Coccinia indica
Yoga Practices Adviced in Prameha:
Certain yoga practices are belived to stimulate the pancreas and improves its function.But
perform these under the instruction of a yoga therapist.

• Katichakrasana
• Tadasana
• Pavanamuktasana
• Gomukhasana
• Shalabasana
• Vakrasana
• Shashankasana
• Dhanurasana
• Mayurasana
• Paschimothanasana
• Ustrasana
• Bhastrika , brahmari , suryabhedi pranayama.
How AGNI manages prameha
Strictly adherent to the traditional Kerala Ayurveda practices , Agni has so far managed a good
number of diabetes cases and helped our patients journey in successful management of
The tailor made diabetes management in Agni includes Panchakarma therapies or detox
programs , followed by external and internal therapies for diabetes management, customized
yoga sessions and diet and thus supporting our guests to adapt to a healthy life least troubled
by diabetes.
Thus Agni Diabetes Reversal comes in 3 levels:
DETOX : the initial focus is to clear the body channels and improve the metabolism. We offer
Panchakarma line of treatment for clearing the toxins accumulated in the body:
• Virechana and vasti are our line of panchakarma for diabetes .
RESTORE: The next focus is to improve Agni or body fire and improving the pancreas function
and thus restoring the normal functions of all body organs.
We do this with our various inhouse therapies which include internal medications ,yoga
practices, diabetic diet and various external therapies which include:
• Udvarthanam : Body massage with specially prepared herbal powders or herbal
• Takradhara : A kind of sudation therapy with medicated buttermilk.
• Nabhi pichu : a treatment over the navel region that helps in digestion
improvement and emotional release.
REDEVELOP : focuses on controlling the blood sugar level naturally under control by diets and
herbal formulations and thus introducing you to a Ayurveda supported healthy life

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